Both toxins cause epithelial cell death through glucosylation of Rho GTPases leading to cell cytoskeleton reorganization, cell rounding, and apoptosis mediated by caspases. Hydration to replace fluids lost with diarrhea is essential and is critical to the management of patients with hypotension or shock. After 15 days of metronidazole therapy day 33the clinical symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting resolved, and stool samples tested negative for C. Patients with severe disease may also present with an ileus rather than diarrhea. Treatment for an initial episode and a first recurrence of CDI: Most patients have protective antibodies directed at the toxins of C. Patients who take antibiotics and ingest C.
However, patients in hospitals or nursing homes may acquire C.
Clostridium Difficile Infection
Other key therapeutic modalities Hydration to replace fluids lost with diarrhea is essential and is critical to the management of patients with hypotension or shock. An additional approach to diagnosis is detection of glutamate dehydrogenase GDH in stool using an EIA test, and combining this with a test for presence of toxin. Piglets, horses, dogs, cats, and calves have all been documented to have CDI. If possible, avoid use of antiperistaltic agents, as they may obscure symptoms and precipitate toxic megacolon. For patients who present with diarrhea and abdominal symptoms after anal-receptive intercourse, clinicians should consider sexually transmitted C. The sheer volume of new medical research and guidelines makes it nearly impossible for doctors and health care workers to stay current.